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The truth behind
organ donation
& transplants

The truth behind organ donation & transplants


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… The truth behind organ donation & organ transplants

Copyright & Acknowledgemts  :  Foreword
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21   22   23   24   25   Appndx 1   Appndx 2
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The Nasty Side of Organ Transplanting.

End Notes

(Webnote: For ease of reading online, these ‘endnotes’ also appear as ‘footnotes’ in each online chapter.
The listing below is in the more correct ‘endnotes’ collation … PDF eBook.)

[1] The Weekend Australian newspaper. Gentle Persuader by Roy Eccleston. 9 August, 1997

[2] See Hoffenberg R. Christiaan Barnard : his first transplants and their impact on concepts of death. British Medical Journal 2001;323:1478-80). http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/323/7327/1478#References… Accessed 9 May 2007

[3] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[4] Taylor R. Re-examining the definition and criteria of death. Seminars in Neurology 17(3) 265-270. (1997)

[5] The file containing “brain death” testing procedures is at: www.anzics.com.au/files/brain_death_organ_donation.pdf at www.anzics.com.au/contact.htm … Accessed 8 May, 2007

[6] Salerno, Steve. The Heart-Stopping Truth about Organ Donation. Playboy Magazine, October 2002. Chicago Illinois, USA.

[7] Woodcock, Tom. Evidence-based versus “established” medical practice. British Medical Journal, 2002 BMJ 2002;324:1099 ( 4 May ) 2002 http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/324/7345/1099?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&author1=woodcock%25252C+tom&andorexacttitle=and&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1074826141219_18798&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&fdate=1/1/2002&tdate=12/31/2002&resourcetype=1,2,3,4 … Accessed 8 May, 2007

David J Hill, retired anaesthetist from the United Kingdom, agrees with Tom Woodcock. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/325/7368/836… Accessed 8 May, 2007

[8] Morioka, Masahiro. Reconsidering Brain Death: A Lesson from Japan’s Fifteen Years of Experience. Hastings Center Report 31, no.4 (2001): 41-46
http://www.lifestudies.org/reconsidering.html  … Accessed 8 May, 2007

[9] Guardian Newspaper, United Kingdom. Sarah Boseley, Health Correspondent. 19 August 2000 www.guardianunlimited.co.uk

[10] Guardian Newspaper, United Kingdom. Sarah Boseley, Health Correspondent. 19 August 2000 www.guardianunlimited.co.uk

[11] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[12] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[13] Machado, Nora, Using the Bodies of the Dead, Dartmouth Publishers, England, 1997. Dr Machado is quoting from Veatch:1993:18. Veatch, R. The Impending Collapse of the Whole Brain Definition of Death. Hastings Centre Report 1993a p 18-24.

[14] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[15] Professor Shewmon spoke on “All In the Mind", Radio National, Australian Broadcasting Corporation. www.abc.net.au/rn/science/mind/s746719.htm  … Accessed 8 May 2007

[16] David Wainwright Evans, former cardiologist at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Personal correspondence to the author.

[17] David Hill, Dr David J. Hill MA FRCA (Emeritus consultant anaesthetist) of Cambridgeshire,United Kingdom. Personal correspondence to the author.

[18] Watanabe, Yoshio. "Why do I stand against the movement for cardiac transplantation in Japan”. from the Cardiovascular Institute, Fujita Health University School of Medicine. Toyoake, Japan July 21, 1994

Dr Watanabe recommends the following for further reference;
Dowie, M. We Have A Donor. A Bold New World of Organ Transplanting, Japanese translation by M. Hirasawa, Heibon-sha, Tokyo 1990
Kimbrel, S. The Human Body Shop. The Engineering and Marketing of Life, Japanese translation by S. Fukuoka Tokyo, Kagaku Dojin-sha 1995

[19] Young & Matta Editorial. Anaesthesia 2000;55;105-6 Correspondence Anaesthesia 2000 55;695-6

[20] Coimbra CG (1999) Implications of ischaemic penumbra for the diagnosis of brain death. Brazilian J Med Biol Res; 32:1538-1545 Study available athttp://www.unifesp.br/dneuro/brdeath.html… Accessed 8 May 2007

[21] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000 http://www.springer.com/east/home?SGWID=5-102-0-0-0&referer=www.wkap.nl… Accessed 8 May 2007

[22] The author thanks Dr David J. Hill MA FRCA (Emeritus consultant anaesthetist) of Cambridgeshire, England, U.K. for help in interpretation.

[23] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[24] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[25] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[26] Dr David Wainwright Evans, former cardiologist at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Personal correspondence to the author.

[27] Schaller, C and Kessler, M.  On the difficulty of neurosurgical end of life decisions. Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany. (J Med Ethics 2006;32:65-69) http://jme.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstrac/32/2/65 … Accessed 8 May 2007

[28]Dr David Wainwright Evans, former cardiologist at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Personal correspondence to the author.

[29] Dr David Wainwright Evans, former cardiologist at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Personal correspondence to the author.

[30]Coimbra, Cicero G. British Medical Journal BMJ 2002;325:836 http://bmj.com/cgi/eletters/325/7368/836#26574… Accessed 29 April 2007

[31] Watanabe, Yoshio. Why do I stand against the movement for cardiac transplantation in Japan”. from the Cardiovascular Institute, Fujita Health University School of Medicine. Toyoake, Japan. July 21, 1994

[32] Finn, Robert. Organ Transplants. O’Reilly and Associates Publishers, Sebastopol, California USA 2000

[33] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p 108

[34] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000

[35] Barnard, Christiaan and Curtis Bill Pepper. One Life. Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney, Australia 1972

[36] Clendinnen, Inga; Tiger’s Eye – A Memoir, The Text Publishing Company, Melbourne, Australia, 2000 p281

[37] Clendinnen, Inga; Tiger’s Eye – A Memoir, The Text Publishing Company, Melbourne, Australia, 2000 p286

[38] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 page 178

[39] Black, Sir Douglas et al, A Code of Practice for the Diagnosis of Brain Stem Deathincluding guidelines for the identification and management of potential organ and tissue donors. Department of Health, United Kingdom. March 1998 http://www.uktransplant.org.uk/ukt/how_to_become_a_donor/questions/answers/further_info/brain_stem/code_of_practice.jsp?campaign=860… Accessed 29 April 2007

[40] Black, Sir Douglas et al, A Code of Practice for the Diagnosis of Brain Stem Death including guidelines for the identification and management of potential organ and tissue donors. Department of Health, United Kingdom. March 1998 http://www.uktransplant.org.uk/ukt/how_to_become_a_donor/questions/answers/further_info/brain_stem/code_of_practice.jsp?campaign=860… Accessed 29 April 2007

[41] Sanchez-Fructuoso A I, Marques M,  Prats D, et al. Victims of cardiac arrest occurring outside the hospital : a source of transplantable kidneys (Ann Int Med 2006;145:157-164). http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/abstract/145/3/157… Accessed 29 April 2007

[42] Dr David Filby. Executive Director, Policy and Intergovernment Relations, Department of Health, South Australian Government. Personal correspondence with the author. 1 November 2006

[43] Donation after Cardiocirculatory Death: A Canadian Forum. Report and Recommendations. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation. Sam D Shemie, Chair. Vancouver, Canada. 2005 http://www.ccdt.ca/
http://www.ccdt.ca/english/publications/final.html#dcd … Accessed 30 April 2007

[44] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[45] Australia New Zealand Organ Donor Registry (ANZOD)Annual Report, editors Karen Herbertt and Graham Russ, ANZDATA Registry, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, South Australia http://www.anzdata.org.au … Accessed 30 April 2007

[46] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[47] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[48] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[49] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[50] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[A] Edith Pringle, ex-girlfriend of Ralph Clark, former South Australian Deputy Premier, is moving from Adelaide to Melbourne to get on Victoria’s heart/lung transplant list. She knows patients near the transplant hospital get priority over those back in South Australia. (She still smokes like a chimney, though). 


[51] Adelaide Advertiser Newspaper, Adelaide, Australia. 29-30 March 2001

[52] Australia and New Zealand Cardiothoracic Organ Transplant Registry 2005 REPORT. Professor Anne Keogh and Ross Pettersson, Editors. ANZCOTR, C/- Level 5 DeLacy Building, ST Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010. p 19, 46 http://www.anzcotr.org.au/

Accessed 30 April 2007

[53] Cheney, Annie. Body Brokers: inside the underground trade in human remains. Broadway Books, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p 189 http://www.randomhouse.com/broadway/catalog/results.pperl?title_auth_isbn=annie+cheney&x=12&y=9

Accessed 30 April 2007

[54] Personal correspondence with the author. The writer has not given permission for her name to be printed.

[55] Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p58, 64-74 http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803 … Accessed 30 April 2007

In McFall v. Shimp Robert McFall, 39, went to the courts because he wanted bone marrow from his cousin, David Shimp, Shimp won and kept his bone marrow.
In Curran v. Bosze non-custodial parent Tamas Bosze wanted bone marrow from his twin daughters for their 12-year-old half brother.
In Strunk v. Strunk a court decided a 27-year-old man with an IQ of 35 and ward of the state must give a kidney to his 28-year-old brother.
In Hart v. Brown the court decided to allow kidney to be removed from a seven-year-old girl and put into her twin sister.
All four cases were before courts in the United States of America.

[56] Matas, David; Kilgour, David. Report into allegations of organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in China. 6 July 2006. Download their report as a pdf file:

http://davidkilgour.ca

http://organharvestinvestigation.net

http://investigation.go.saveinter.net

Accessed 30 April 2007

[57] Kidney Donation by Live Donors. New South Wales Department of Health, 73 Miller Street, North Sydney. Australia. 2004 page 4 www.health.nsw.gov.au

Accessed 30 April 2007

What struck me with this guidebook for living kidney donors was the sentence:
ldquo;Remember that is your decision…It’s OK to say NO!” Why would potential donors need to be told this when they had decided to donate a kidney? The only reason I could think of was that the “donor” had been approached for a donation and not volunteered an organ.

[58] Donation after Cardiocirculatory Death: A Canadian Forum. Report and Recommendations. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation. Sam D Shemie, Chair. Vancouver, Canada. 2005 http://www.ccdt.ca/

Accessed 30 April 2007

[59] Brook, N.R. and Nicholson, M.L. Kidney transplantation from non heart-beating donors.The University Division of Transplant Surgery, Leicester General Hospital, Gwendolen Road, Leicester, LE1 6GF http://www.rcsed.ac.uk/journal/svol1_6/10600001.html

Accessed 30 April 2007

[60] Retrieving organs from non-heart-beating organ donors: a review of medical and ethical issues. Doig, Christopher James and Rocker, Graeme. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 50:1069-1076 (2003)
http://www.cja-jca.org/cgi/content/abstract/50/10/1069
http://www.cja-jca.org/cgi/content/full/50/10/1069

Accessed 30 April 2007

[61] Salerno, Steve. The Heart-Stopping Truth About Organ Donation. Playboy Magazine. Chicago Illinois, USA. October 2002 http://www.geocities.com/organtransplanting/SalernoHeartArticle.html

Accessed 30 April 2007

[62] Brook, N.R. and Nicholson, M.L. Kidney transplantation from non heart-beating donors.The University Division of Transplant Surgery, Leicester General Hospital, Gwendolen Road, Leicester, LE1 6GF
http://www.rcsed.ac.uk/journal/svol1_6/10600001.html

Accessed 30 April 2007

[63] David Wainwright Evans, former cardiologist at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Personal correspondence to the author.

"Donation after cardiac death” has nothing to do with “brain death” and there is no pretence by the harvesters that they await “brain death” before beginning surgery. They don't confine their search for donors to those who might become candidates on those criteria. Anyone who is expected to die when life-support - meaning mechanical ventilation - is discontinued is a potential candidate, whatever the reason for ventilator-dependence. The transplanters rest their case for protection from charges of surgical assault on the unsupportable notion that waiting for 2 - 10 minutes after the last heartbeat ensures that the body/person is “really” dead - in the old-fashioned, traditional sense of the term. Bad science and sophistry again!"
[64]Hepatitis C: An Update. Australian Family Physician. Volume 32, Number 10. October 2003. p 48 http://www.racgp.org.au/Content/NavigationMenu/ClinicalResources/RACGPGuidelines/HepatitisC/20031029hepc.pdf

Accessed 30 April 2007

If link is inactive go to http://www.racgp.org.au/guidelines/hepatitisc then click on Hepatitis C Guidelines 2003 Update (889Kb)

[65] Deng, Mario C., Effect of receiving a heart transplant: analysis of a national cohort entered on to a waiting list, stratified by heart failure severity BMJ 2000;321:540-545 ( 2 September,2000 ), Available at British Medical Journal web site at www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7260/540

Accessed 30 April 2007

[66] Deng, Mario, C. BBC interview. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/904627.stm

Accessed 30 April 2007

[67] Intrathoracic organ transplantation in the United Kingdom 1995-99: results from the UK cardiothoracic transplant audit. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11997419&dopt=Abstract

Accessed 30 April 2007

The report Abstract concludes that: “This validated database defines the current state of thoracic transplantation in the United Kingdom and is a useful source of data for workers involved in the field. Thoracic transplantation is still limited by donor scarcity and high mortality. Overoptimistic reports may reflect publication bias and are not supported by data from this national cohort."

[68] Dr David Wainwright Evans, former Cardiologist, Papworth Hospital, United Kingdom, Personal correspondence with the author. Dr Evans says,

“The “hunger for scarce resources” has, indeed, deprived many worthy citizens of the chance of useful extension of life via the tried and tested surgical procedures - valve replacements, coronary bypass grafts etc. - which units like ours at Papworth were set up to provide. Three such patients died in one month for lack of operations which, but for heart transplants, they would have received while with us; as it was, they were sent out to await the availability of facilities (particularly ITU beds) and perished ere they could be re-admitted. In one 18-month period we lost 14 patients similarly.”
[69]Personal Correspondence with the author. The doctor was speaking privately and off the record.

[70] National Marrow Donor Program (U.S.A.)
http://www.marrow.org/PATIENT/understanding_survival_statistics.html

Accessed 1 May 2007

[71] Orange County Register Newspaper, California. U.S.A. Body Broker Series. April16-20, 2000.
www.ocregister.com/features/body/index.shtml

Accessed 1 May 2007

[72] Orange County Register Newspaper, California. U.S.A. Body Broker Series. April16-20, 2000.
www.ocregister.com/features/body/index.shtml

Accessed 1 May 2007

[73] The Pharmacy Guild of Australia logo appears twice on the Australian government’s 2007 Organ Donor Register consent card and promotion material. Next to one logo the following words appear: “Proudly supported by The Pharmacy Guild of Australia”.

Glaxo-Wellcome(now known as Glaxo-Smith-Kline) has funded the Victorian Donor Registry in Australia with $400,000.
Fujisawa, who manufacture Tacrolimus under the tradename Prograf, fund production of What Every Patient Needs To Know, a publication of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) the world’s largest organ allocation and transplant promotion organisation. UNOS holds the government contracted monopoly on organ allocation for the whole of the United States. The booklet includes finding a transplant team with a high survival rate, maximising government and insurance payments and, if you don’t have enough money, asking for donations from churches, service groups and contacting media to run sad case stories and running charity fundraising campaigns with you as the principal beneficiary.
On page one it says, “UNOS gratefully acknowledges Fujisawa HealthCare, Inc. whose generous education grant made possible the production of What Every Patient Needs to Know.” But why does Fujisawa so kindly provide funding for UNOS, well, the booklet doesn’t mention this but UNOS owns a shadow organisation called the UNOS Foundation which itself owns something called Transplant Informatics Institute run by UNOS staffers which analyses and sells organ network data to guess who, Fujisawa HealthCare which wants their product, Tacrolimus, to replace the current favourite, Cyclosporin, which is produced by rival drug company, Novartis.
Drug companies sponsoring organ allocation and donor promotion organisations isn’t unusual, but perhaps the dubious aspect is UNOS thanking Fujisawa thus creating the impression it is a gift rather than a commercial trade agreement between businesses.
And what else does the booklet tell us? Cyclosporin, the most popular anti-rejection drug made by rival company, Novartis, is merely “A drug” which suppresses “the body’s defence system” while the less popular Tacrolimis (Prograf), produced by Fujisawa, is “A powerful immunosuppressant” which “turns down the body’s immune response” It pays to give money to UNOS. (see page 8 and 10 of the booklet)

[74] Orange County Register Newspaper, California. U.S.A. Body Broker Series. 16-20 April, 2000.
www.ocregister.com/features/body/index.shtml

Accessed 1 May 2007

Another product is Restylane; a non-animal stabilised Hyaluronic Acid, which is injected into the lips. It is made from culturing in-vitro cells removed from the swollen joints associated with arthritis. Cosmetic technicians inject Restylane into the face causing arthritic swelling, which removes wrinkles. It can also be used to swell thin, cruel lips making them look pouting and attractive. It costs $395 and lasts one year. Yet another wrinkle reducer is made from botulism. It paralyses the facial muscle so the customer can’t smile or grimace nor produce laugh lines.
These products are advertised in glossy magazines devoted to the subject of cosmetic surgical procedures and include bum implants for men who want their buttocks to stick out. Much of the transplant industry feeds neurosis and wastes resources that should go to preventative medicine and medical help for poorer people of the world. Who would want a bum implant, anyway?

[75] Orange County Register Newspaper, California. U.S.A. Body Broker Series. 16-20 April, 2000.
www.ocregister.com/features/body/index.shtml

Accessed 1 May 2007

[76] Orange County Register Newspaper, California. U.S.A. Body Broker Series. 16-20 April, 2000.
www.ocregister.com/features/body/index.shtml

Accessed 1 May 2007

[77] Cheney, Annie. Body Brokers: inside the underground trade in human remains. Broadway Books, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p 189
http://www.randomhouse.com/broadway/catalog/results.pperl?title_auth_isbn=annie+cheney&x=12&y=9

Accessed 1 May 2007

[78] Orange County Register Newspaper, California. U.S.A. Body Broker Series. 16-20 April, 2000.
www.ocregister.com/features/body/index.shtml

Accessed 1 May 2007

[79] Grasby, Dallas. Tissue Bank of South Australia. Frome Road, Adelaide. Personal communication with the author. August 2006

[80] Adelaide Advertiser Newspaper, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. 7 January, 2002

[81] Vowles, Damon. Personal communication with the author.

[82] Bell, Sir Peter. Professor of Surgery at the University of Leicester,
Plan to offer cash to organ donors , Guardian Weekly, London, United Kingdom. October 24-30, 2002

[83] Tonti-Filippini, Nicholas. Revising Brain Death: Cultural Imperialism,
Linacre Quarterly. Boston. May 1998

[84]Kidney Donation by Live Donors.New South Wales Department of Health, 73 Miller Street, North Sydney. Australia. 2004 page 4 www.health.nsw.gov.au

[85] Veatch, Robert M. Why Liberals Should Accept Financial Incentives for Organ Procurement Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal Vol. 13, No. 1, 19–36 © 2003 The Johns Hopkins University Press

[87] Evans, David W. Retired physician, Queens' College, Cambridge, CB3 9Ehttp://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/333/7571/746?ehom#144121

Accessed 1 May 2007

[88] Chadban, Steve. Manager,ANZDATA Transplant Section. Steve was writing in theANZOD Registry Report 2005 Australia and New Zealand Organ Donation Registry. Adelaide, South Australia.

  Editors: Leonie Excell, Graeme Russ, Penny Wride
http://www.anzdata.org.au
http://www.anzdata.org.au/ANZOD/ANZODReport/anzodreport.htm#2006

Accessed 1 May 2007

[89] Tonti-Filippini, Nicholas. Revising Brain Death: Cultural Imperialism,
Linacre Quarterly. Boston. May 1998

Nicholas served as health care ethicist for eight years at St Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia

[93] Deng, Mario, C. BBC interview. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/904627.stm

Accessed 3 May 2007

[94] Deng, Mario C., Effect of receiving a heart transplant: analysis of a national cohort entered on to a waiting list, stratified by heart failure severity BMJ 2000;321:540-545 (2 September,2000) Available at British Medical Journal web site: www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7260/540

Accessed 3 May 2007

[96] Time Magazine (Australian Edition), Life Out Of Death by Leora Moldofsky. Sydney, Australia. 26 February 2001

[97] Bendle, Stephen, National Manager, Australians Donate Inc, www.australiansdonate.org.au Email exchanges with the author.

[98] Bendle, Stephen, National Manager, Australians Donate Inc, www.australiansdonate.org.au Email exchanges with the author.

[99] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[100] Tonti-Filippini, Nicholas. Revising Brain Death: Cultural Imperialism,
Linacre Quarterly. Boston. May 1998

The author served as health care ethicist for eight years at St Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia

[102] http://www.jotnw.or.jp

Accessed 3 May 2007

[103] OrganKeeper TM is a Trademark name owned by Duane Horton of Rhode Island, U.S.A. who operates www.organkeeper.com

Accessed 3 May 2007

[104] www.organkeeper.com

Accessed 3 May 2007

[105] The Australians Donate organisation got a little surprise when they hired the actors for what they thought was a single payment for a series of sessions. They later discovered a small clause in the contract requiring them to pay each actor per media exposure meaning they have an ongoing financial commitment. The actors are still laughing.

[106] Letter from Brendan Gibson from the Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government. 27 February, 2007. File Reference:2006/023548

[107] Time Magazine (Australian Edition), Sydney, Australia. 26 February 2001

[108] Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Organ Watch at the University of California, Berkeley http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/biotech/organswatch/

Accessed 3 May 2007

[109] The American states using presumed consent are California, Florida, Hawaii, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina and Wisconsin.

Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p 125 http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803

Accessed 3 May 207

[110] Death, dying and donation: organ transplantation and the diagnosis of death. I H Kerridge, P Saul, M Lowe, J McPhee and D Williams. Journal of Medical Ethics. J Med Ethics 2002;28:89-94 http://jme.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/28/2/89

Accessed 3 May 2007

[111] Tonti-Filippini, Nicholas. Revising Brain Death: Cultural Imperialism,
Linacre Quarterly. Boston. May 1998

[112] ANZOD Registry Report 2005, Australia and New Zealand Organ Donation Registry. Adelaide, South Australia.

Editors: Leonie Excell, Graeme Russ, Penny Wride
http://www.anzdata.org.au
http://www.anzdata.org.au/ANZOD/ANZODReport/anzodreport.htm#2006

Accessed 3 May 2007

[113] Deng, Mario C., Effect of receiving a heart transplant: analysis of a national cohort entered on to a waiting list, stratified by heart failure severity BMJ 2000;321:540-545 ( 2 September,2000 ), Available at British Medical Journal web site at www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7260/540

Accessed 3 May 2007

[114] Evans, David W.Living organ donation”. British Medical Journal Rapid Responses. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/333/7571/746?ehom#144121

Accessed 3 May 2007

[115]Organ Transplants From Living Donors (Kidneys) - Israel 2003

Ronit Kedem-Dror http://www.knesset.gov.il/library/eng/docs/sif032_eng.htm

Accessed 3 May 2007

[116] Finn, Robert. Organ Transplants. O’Reilly and Associates Publishers, Sebastopol, California USA 2000 p90

[117] Dowie, Mark; We Have A Donor, St Martin’s Press, 175 Fifth Avenue New York. P116

[118] Clendinnen, Inga; Tiger’s Eye – A Memoir, The Text Publishing Company, Melbourne, Australia, 2000

[119] Watanabe, Yoshio. “Why do I stand against the movement for cardiac transplantation in Japan"? from the Cardiovascular Institute, Fujita Health University School of Medicine. Toyoake, Japan July 21, 1994

[120] Clendinnen, Inga; Tiger’s Eye – A Memoir, The Text Publishing Company, Melbourne, Australia, 2000

[121] Matas, David; Kilgour, David. Report into allegations of organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in China. 6 July 2006 

Download their report as a pdf file
http://davidkilgour.ca
http://organharvestinvestigation.net
http://investigation.go.saveinter.net

Accessed 4 May 2007

[122]Organ Transplants from Living Donors (Kidneys) - Israel 2003

Ronit Kedem-Dror http://www.knesset.gov.il/library/eng/docs/sif032_eng.htm

Accessed 4 May 2007

[123] Personal correspondence with the author. Dr Robert Claxton was asked by the Sydney Diocese Secretariat of the Anglican Church to respond to questions put to them.

[124] His Holiness Pope John Paul II, in his address to the International Conference of the Transplantation Society on 29 August, 2000. The full transcript of the Pope’s address is at:

http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/2000/jul-sep/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20000829_transplants_en.html

Accessed 4 May 2007

[125] Queensland Right To Life, Personal Correspondence with the author.

[126] His Holiness Pope John Paul II, in his address to the International Conference of the Transplantation Society on 29 August, 2000. The full transcript of the Pope’s address is at:

http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/2000/jul-sep/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20000829_transplants_en.html

Accessed 4 May 2007

[127] Transfusion Alternatives.2004. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of New York, 25 Columbia Heights, New York, United States. 2004

[128] Chang, Garma C.C.; The Six Yogas of Naropa and Teaching on Mahamudra, Snow Lion Publications, New York, USA

[129] Matas, David; Kilgour, David. Report into allegations of organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in China. 6 July 2006 

Download their report as a pdf file
http://davidkilgour.ca
http://organharvestinvestigation.net
http://investigation.go.saveinter.net

Accessed 4 May 2007

[130] Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Organ Watch at the University of California, Berkeley http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/biotech/organswatch/

Accessed 22 February 2007

[131] Matas, David; Kilgour, David. Report into allegations of organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in China. 6 July 2006 

Download their report as a pdf file
http://davidkilgour.ca
http://organharvestinvestigation.net
http://investigation.go.saveinter.net

Accessed 4 May 2007

[132] South Australian Organ Donation Agency, Legal and Ethical Aspects, circa 1995, Adelaide South Australia

[133] Japan Organ Transplant Network. http://www.jotnw.or.jp/english/index.html

Accessed 4 May 2007

[134] South Australian Organ Donation Agency, Legal and Ethical Aspects, circa 1995, Adelaide South Australia

[135] Personal communication to the author from Janine Werneberg of the Church of Scientology in Australia

[136] Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p132-133 http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803

[137] Australia New Zealand Organ Donor (ANZOD)Annual Reports, editors Karen Herbertt and Graham Russ, ANZDATA Registry, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, South Australia.

Their site contains ANZOD Annual Reports from 1997 to present.

http://www.anzdata.org.au
http://www.anzdata.org.au/ANZOD/ANZODReport/anzodreport.htm#2006

Accessed 4 May 2007

[138] Australia New Zealand Organ Donor (ANZOD)Annual Reports, editors Karen Herbertt and Graham Russ, ANZDATA Registry, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, South Australia

Their site contains ANZOD Annual Reports from 1997 to present.

http://www.anzdata.org.au
http://www.anzdata.org.au/ANZOD/ANZODReport/anzodreport.htm#2006

Accessed 4 May 2007

[139] Deng, Mario C., Effect of receiving a heart transplant: analysis of a national cohort entered on to a waiting list, stratified by heart failure severity BMJ 2000;321:540-545 (2 September,2000) Available at British Medical Journal web site: www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7260/540

Accessed 4 May 2007

[140] Anyanwu AC, Rogers CA, Murday AJ; Steering Group. Intrathoracic organ transplantation in the United Kingdom 1995-99: results from the UK cardiothoracic transplant audit.
The UK Cardiothoracic Transplant Audit, Clinical Effectiveness Unit, The Royal College of Surgeons of England, London, UK. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11997419&dopt=Abstract

Accessed 4 May 2007

[141] Australia and New Zealand Cardiothoracic Organ Transplant Registry 2005 REPORT. Professor Anne Keogh and Ross Pettersson, Editors. ANZCOTR, C/- Level 5 DeLacy Building, ST Vincent’s Hospital, Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010 http://www.anzcotr.org.au/

Accessed 4 May 2007

[142] Deng, Mario C., Effect of receiving a heart transplant: analysis of a national cohort entered on to a waiting list, stratified by heart failure severity BMJ 2000;321:540-545 (2September,2000), Available at British Medical Journal web site at www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7260/540

Accessed 4 May 2007

[143] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p 26

[144] Barnard, Christiaan and Curtis Bill Pepper. One Life. Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney, Australia 1972

[145] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p 32

[146] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p 26

[147] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p 24-25

[148] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p 206

[149] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p 34

[150] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p 39-40

The authors say the last they heard about him was from The New Indian Express of February 2, 1999. He had gotten out of jail and announced his intention of performing further xenotransplants.

[151] Brumm, Judith. This Little Piggy Went to the Biotech Market. Nursing Spectrum Magazine, United States. http://community.nursingspectrum.com/MagazineArticles/article.cfm?AID=8146

Accessed 5 May 2007

[152] Cooke, Jennifer, Cannibals, Cows and the CJD Catastrophe, Random House, Milsons Point, NSW 1998

[153] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994. This independent inquiry was funded by the government after public opinion and victims’ relatives wouldn’t accept the Australian government’s own investigation. A more popular and readable version of hGH and CJD is found in Jennifer Cooke’s Cannibals, Cows and the CJD Catastrophe.

[154] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994

[155] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994. P 75-79

[156] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994. P71

[157] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994. P69

[158] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994. P 392,393,396

[159] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994. P391

[160] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994

[161] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994.

[162] Cooke, Jennifer, Cannibals, Cows and the CJD Catastrophe, Random House, Milsons Point, NSW 1998

[163] Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Organ Watch at the University of California, Berkeley http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/biotech/organswatch/

Accessed 5 May 2007

[164] Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p58, 64-74 http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803

Accessed 5 May 2007

[165] British Medical Journal. Police uncover large scale organ trafficking in Punjab, Sanjay Kumar, New Delhi. BMJ 2003;326:180 ( 25 January )

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/326/7382/180/b?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=india+police+organ+trade&searchid=1044231481110_13838&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&volume=326&issue=7382

Accessed 5 May 2007

[166]Cheney, Annie. Body Brokers: inside the underground trade in human remains. Broadway Books, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p 189 http://www.randomhouse.com/broadway/catalog/results.pperl?title_auth_isbn=annie+cheney&x=12&y=9

Accessed 5 May 2007

[167] Telegraph Newspaper, United Kingdom 23 December 2005. www.telegraph.co.uk

[168] Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p117-119 http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803

Accessed 5 May 2007

[169] Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p 125 http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803

Accessed 5 May 2007

[170] Campbell, Ronald, Heisel, William and Katches, Mark. Orange County Register Newspaper, California. U.S.A. Body Broker Series. April16-20, 2000. www.ocregister.com/features/body/index.shtml

Accessed 5 May 2007

[171] Campbell, Ronald, Heisel, William and Katches, Mark. Orange County Register Newspaper, California. U.S.A. Body Broker Series. April16-20, 2000. www.ocregister.com/features/body/index.shtml

Accessed 5 May 2007

[172] Cheney, Annie. Body Brokers: inside the underground trade in human remains. Broadway Books, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p 149-153 http://www.randomhouse.com/broadway/catalog/results.pperl?title_auth_isbn=annie+cheney&x=12&y=9

Accessed 5 May 2007 

[173] Cheney, Annie. Body Brokers: inside the underground trade in human remains. Broadway Books, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p 146 http://www.randomhouse.com/broadway/catalog/results.pperl?title_auth_isbn=annie+cheney&x=12&y=9 

Accessed 5 May 2007

[174] Matas, David; Kilgour, David. Report into allegations of organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in China. 6 July 2006 

Download their report as a pdf file
http://davidkilgour.ca
http://organharvestinvestigation.net
http://investigation.go.saveinter.net

Accessed 8 May 2007

[176] Matas, David; Kilgour, David. Report into allegations of organ harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners in China. 6 July 2006 

Download their report as a pdf file 
http://davidkilgour.ca
http://organharvestinvestigation.net
http://investigation.go.saveinter.net

Accessed 8 May 2007

[177] Dr David Filby. Executive Director, Policy and Intergovernment Relations, Department of Health, South Australian Government. Personal correspondence with the author. 1 November 2006:

[178] Allars, Margaret. Inquiry into the use of Pituitary Derived Hormones in Australia and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Australian Govt Publishing Services, Canberra, Australia. 1994.

[179] Healey, Kaye, Editor, Organ Transplants, Spinney Press, Balmain, New South Wales, Australia. 1996

[180] Australian Broadcasting Corporation http://abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200608/s1718577.htm:

Friday, August 18, 2006. 3:48pm (AEST)

Accessed 8 May 2007

[181] The Adelaide Advertiser. Adelaide, South Australia. 7 February 2007. p 25:

www.news.com.au/adelaidenow :

[182] Ahmad, Rasheed MB; MSc; FRCP. Emeritus Consultant Nephrologist ‘Shalamar’, Woolton Park, Liverpool L25 6DU
http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/333/7571/746?ehom#144121

Accessed 8 May 2007

[183] Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p188 http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803 :

Accessed 8 May 2007:

[184] Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p187-189 http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803

Accessed 8 May 2007:

[185] Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Organ Watch at the University of California, Berkeley http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/biotech/organswatch

Accessed 8 May 2007

La Stampa,

26 November, 1993. 

STATEMENT OF Professor NANCY SCHEPER-HUGHES,
PROJECT DIRECTOR, ORGANS WATCH
from THE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS,HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, United States Congress
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 73­452PS2001
ORGANS FOR SALE: CHINA’s GROWING TRADE AND ULTIMATE VIOLATION OF PRISONERS' RIGHTS
HEARING BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS AND HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
ONE HUNDRED SEVENTH CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION JUNE 27, 2001 Serial No. 107­2:

[186] South African doctors charged with involvement in organ trade

British Medical Journal. :

BMJ2004;329:190 (24 July), doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7459.190-a:

http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7459/190-a  :

Accessed 8 May 2007

[187] Hearts and Minds. Christine Toomey. The Weekend Australian Magazine. Published by Nationwide News Pty Ltd. July 22-23 2006:

[188] Yallop, David; To the Ends of the Earth. Jonathan Cape, London 1993 p286-288. 295-,297.:

[189] Yallop, David; To the Ends of the Earth. Jonathan Cape, London 1993 p286-288. 295-297:

[190] Yallop, David; To the Ends of the Earth. Jonathan Cape, London 1993 p286-288. 295-297:

[191] Doctors charged with planning to kill a patient for his kidneys. Andrew Osborn. British Medical Journal BMJ2004;328:1092 (8 May), doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7448.1092-a http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/328/7448/1092-a

Accessed 8 May 2007:

[192] GM Guiraudon personal communication with Cardiologist Yoshio Watanabe written in “Why do I stand against the movement for cardiac transplantation in Japan”. from the Cardiovascular Institute, Fujita Health University School of Medicine. Toyoake, Japan July 21, 1994

[193] Watanabe, Yoshio. “Why do I stand against the movement for cardiac transplantation in Japan”. from the Cardiovascular Institute, Fujita Health University School of Medicine. Toyoake, Japan July 21, 1994

[194] Cosmetic surgery special: When looks can kill. New Scientist Magazine, 19 October 2006
http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg19225745.200

Accessed 8 May 2007

Plastic surgery linked to more suicide: study. CTV Network, Canada Oct. 8 2006
http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20061008/breast_implants_061008?s_name=&no_ads

Accessed 8 May 2007

[195] Prasad, K.R. and Lodge, J.P.A.; Transplantation of the Liver and Pancreas; British Medical Journal, United Kingdom 7 April, 2001

[196] Hepatitis C: An Update. Australian Family Physician. Volume 32, Number 10. October 2003. p 48 http://www.racgp.org.au/Content/NavigationMenu/ClinicalResources/RACGPGuidelines/HepatitisC/20031029hepc.pdf

Accessed 8 May 2007

If link is inactive go to http://www.racgp.org.au/guidelines/hepatitisc then click on Hepatitis C Guidelines 2003 Update (889Kb)

[197] Scheper-Hughes, Nancy; Organ Watch at the University of California, Berkeley http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/biotech/organswatch/

Accessed 8 May 2007

[198] Goodwin, Michele. Black Markets: The supply and demand of body parts. Cambridge University Press, New York, U.S.A. 2006 p58, 64-74 (See End Note 55 for more details.)
http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521852803

Accessed 8 May 2007

[199] Personal correspondence with the author. The writer has not given permission for her name to be published.

[200] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[201] Potts, Michael; Byrne, Paul A. and Nilges, Richard, editors. Beyond Brain Death. Kluwer Academic Publications, London, United Kingdom. 2000

[202] Barnard, Christiaan; The Second Life: Memoirs, Hodder and Stoughton, Sydney, Australia 1993. P33

[203] Scientists from the United Kingdom and Belgium have discovered a woman in a persistent vegetative state who can understand and respond to verbal suggestions.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/healthnews.php?newsid=51473
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/313/5792/1402
http://www.melaniephillips.com/articles-new/?p=449

Accessed 8 May 2007

[204] Cooper, D.K.C. and Lanza, R.P. Xeno. Oxford University Press, New York, NY 2000 p134,135

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